- Figure shows the components of the Fallot tetralogy
- Fallot Tetralogy Open the popup dialog
- The Fallot tetralogy (teh-TRAL-uh-jee from fuh-LOW) is a rare disease caused by a combination of four heart defects (congenital) present at birth.
These defects, which affect the structure of the heart, cause deoxygenated blood to flow from the heart to the rest of the body. Infants and children with Fallot tetralogy usually have blue-tinged skin because their blood does not have enough oxygen.
Fallot tetralogy is often diagnosed in infancy or shortly thereafter. However, depending on the severity of the abnormalities and symptoms, the Fallot tetralogy may not be recognized later in life in some adults.
The tetralogy of Fallot’s symptoms varies depending on the degree of obstruction to blood flow from the right ventricle to the lungs. Signs and symptoms can include:
- A bluish discoloration of the skin caused by low levels of oxygen in the blood (cyanosis)
- Shortness of breath and rapid breathing, especially while dieting or exercising
- Loss of consciousness (fainting)
- Club of fingers and toes – an abnormal, rounded shape of the nail bed
- Little weight gain
- It is easy to get tired while playing or exercising
- Prolonged crying
Fallot tetralogy occurs during fetal growth, when the baby’s heart is developing. Although factors such as poor maternal nutrition, viral diseases, or genetic disorders can increase the risk of this condition, in most cases the cause of the Fallot tetralogy is unknown.
The four anomalies that make up the Fallot tetralogy include:
Pulmonary valve stenosis. Pulmonary valve stenosis is a narrowing of the pulmonary valve – the valve that separates the lower right chamber of the heart (right ventricle) from the main blood vessel that leads to the lungs (pulmonary artery).
The narrowing (narrowing) of the pulmonary valve reduces the flow of blood to the lungs. The narrowing can also affect the muscle below the pulmonary valve. In some severe cases, the pulmonary valve does not form properly (pulmonary atresia) and leads to decreased blood flow to the lungs.
Although the exact cause of the Fallot tetralogy is unknown, several factors can increase the risk of having a baby born with the disease. These risk factors include:
- A viral illness during pregnancy, such as rubella (German measles)
- Alcoholism during pregnancy
- Bad nutrition during pregnancy
- A mother over 40
- A parent who has the Fallot tetralogy
- The presence of Down syndrome or DiGeorge syndrome
- All babies who have the Fallot tetralogy need to be corrected. Without treatment, your baby may not grow and develop properly.
- Your baby may also be at increased risk of serious complications such as infectious endocarditis – an infection of the inner lining of the heart or the valve of the heart caused by a bacterial infection.
- Untreated cases of Fallot’s tetralogy usually develop serious complications over time that can result in death or disability in early adulthood. Tetralogy of Fallot treatment in Hyderabad